WASHINGTON — When Representative Deb Haaland was tapped in December to be President Biden’s interior secretary, the decision was hailed as historic. She was the first Native American ever nominated to serve in cabinet — in this case to head a department that, for much of the nation’s history, has mistreated and neglected Indigenous Americans.
On Tuesday, when she faces her confirmation hearing, another label will be applied to her nomination: embattled.
No other Biden nominee to head a cabinet department has divided the political parties as sharply. To her considerable number of supporters, she embodies the hope of the Biden era, an activist second-term representative from New Mexico who would break ground like no other member of the cabinet, ethnically and politically.
Her detractors have zeroed in on her activism, especially her forthright denunciations of any and all oil and gas exploration on public land and her fierce opposition to the natural gas extraction method known as hydraulic fracturing, or fracking.
“Representative Haaland has a long record as a vehement opponent of American fossil fuels,” said Senator John Barrasso of Wyoming, one of the nation’s largest oil, gas and coal producing states, who is the ranking Republican on the Senate Energy and Natural Resources Committee, which will consider her nomination this week.
Propelled by an activist campaign, Ms. Haaland emerged last fall as a dark-horse candidate to head the Biden administration’s Interior Department, the vast government agency that oversees the nation’s 500 million acres of public lands and is most responsible for the well-being of the nation’s 1.9 million Indigenous people.
Ms. Haaland, a citizen of Laguna Pueblo, one of the country’s 574 federally recognized tribes, would also become the face of one of Mr. Biden’s most divisive climate change policies, his pledge to ban all fracking on public lands.
To call her nomination the most endangered of Mr. Biden’s slate would be untrue. That title belongs to his choice to head the White House Office of Management and Budget, Neera Tanden, who has garnered opposition not only from Republicans but also the Senate’s most conservative Democrat, Joe Manchin III of West Virginia.
What differentiates Ms. Tanden’s nomination from Ms. Haaland’s is the depth of their support from the Democratic Party’s activist wing. Ms. Tanden’s social-media needling of Senator Bernie Sanders, independent of Vermont, and her association with Hillary Clinton has left her liberal support tepid at best, while Ms. Haaland has become a favorite of the Sanders wing, who see her as a transformational figure. She could also win the support of some Republican moderates, such as Susan Collins of Maine and Lisa Murkowski of Alaska, whose state is 18 percent Alaska Native.
“The number of folks across the country who are energized about her nomination, I’ve never seen,” said Collin O’Mara, the head of the National Wildlife Federation and a former top environmental official in Delaware who worked with the Biden administration’s transition team as it assembled its list of nominees for environmental posts.
In the center of that partisan chasm once again sits Senator Manchin, who leads the Senate Energy Committee and has a history of siding with Republicans on issues of energy and climate change.
To win him over, Ms. Haaland will highlight her distinctive personal story and a hardscrabble background that could appeal to a West Virginian who identifies with his increasingly Republican state’s working class.
“I’m not a stranger to the struggles many families across America face today,” she will say, according to prepared remarks distributed by the Interior Department on Monday afternoon. “I’ve lived most of my adult life paycheck to paycheck.”
“It’s because of these struggles that I fully understand the role interior must play in the president’s plan to build back better; to…